Amsterdam’s North/South metro line opened this week, after a construction project lasting 22 years.
Design work started in 1996, and construction beginning in 2003, however progress was stalled by the need to tunnel under the city without disturbing the 14th-century wooden foundations posts that support many buildings.
Amsterdam Central Station (Benthem Crouwel Architects)
The metro eventually went ahead thanks to "shields" that allowed engineers to tunnel into the boggy ground without disturbing the city too much.
The 9.2km line has seven stations, two above ground and five below, designed by Dutch firm Benthem Crouwel Architects.
Each 10,000 sq m stop has a unique design and its own artwork. Rokin station will display some of the 700,000 archaeological objects that were excavated during the construction.
Noord (Benthem Crouwel Architects)
About 14 million passengers are expected to use the line each year.
Top image: Europaplein (All images courtesy of Benthem Crouwel Architects)